Wednesday, May 27, 2009

Jan Hus, Reformer - Heretical Views Sound Modern

Here is Jan Hus, a statue in an unlikely place: Terezin, or Theresienstadt -- the Nazi-created ghetto / concentration camp-that was staged for purposes of Red Cross inspections as an ideal settlement place for Jews. In reality, it was a holding pen, a way station to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Jan Hus: a more famous statue is in Prague Square, see ://www.prague.cz/jan-hus-monument/ but it was being renovated and under nets and tarps when we were there. The pose in Prague is different, see ://pragueee.blogspot.com/2009/05/statue-of-jan-hus-1372-1415-prague.html/

Jan Hus: Why here? Unanswered. Is it the theme of martyrdom, persecution? See photos of Terezin at ://www.scrapbookpages.com/CzechRepublic/Theresienstadt/TheresienstadtGhetto/GhettoTour/Tour02.html

Jan Hus: What did he do to deserve the designation of heretic, and burn, as he did. See The Hussites at http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/margin/hussites.htm/

He and his followers saw themselves as Christian, and devout. Their disagreement was not with the theology of the Church, but with its implementation of authority. His thought preceded the reform movement of Martin Luther. Some of his followers fled to Germany and Poland.

Hus favored these things:

1. People should be able to read the Bible in their own language; people are well able to interpret scripture for themselves; this same issue was fought and lost in Croatia, at Nin, by Bishop Gregory, Gregor of Nin, in the 10th Century. See Croatia Road Ways, Nin

2. Priests should stop engaging in sexual immorality and financial abuses;

3. All Christians should be allowed to receive full communion (only priests took the wine apparently in those days);

4. The Pope should not sell "indulgences" (buy your way out of sin?)

5. The Bible itself supersedes all the councils and authorities' views of it;

6. When accused of heresy, undermining the authority of the church, he said he would obey the Church if the Church could prove that what he said was error.

That did it. He put his own ability to interpret scripture ahead of the Church power to do so, and in 1418 he was executed.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Terezin On Stage - "Way to Heaven".. Theresienstadt.

Terezin (Theresienstadt):  More in Arts News

On stage: "Way to Heaven."  A play by Juan Mayorga about the important Nazi staging aspect of Terezin, concentration camp billed as a settlement.  For inspectors from the Red Cross in WWII, see the well-fed little children and happily working adults in fine conditions.  And music, even. A New York Times calls it "a fake utopia," notes the "synthetic contentment." See ://theater2.nytimes.com/2009/05/20/theater/reviews/20heav.html/.

The playwright is Spanish. The play is offered in Spanish on alternate nights, adding to a universality concept in the issues, if not as to the actual nationality of persons kept, and shipped to Auschwitz and death camps from there.

This small post serves as a collection point for the reviews for future reference.  See this characterization, "an audacious play about a monstrous wrong," at Classical Voice of North Carolina.  See ://www.cvnc.org/reviews/2009/012009/Way.html/

Emerging themes:  how we are duped, how we fail to act on hunches while being duped - liking the duping - and the clash of public view vs. concealed reality. Subtlety and daring prevail over the right.
 

Saturday, January 10, 2009

Terezin, Theresienstadt. Brundibar and The Music of Terezin - Josa Karas; Hans Krasa

Terezin - a/k/a Theresienstadt.
A Ghetto, A Concentration Camp
A Place of Death, Deceit, and Music?
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Sometimes it takes an obituary to fill in history not told elsewhere. And about a neighbor. And opera and symphonic works in a concentration camp.
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Josa Karas.

Here, we learn from the New York Times in 2008 (October 7, we think) that one Josa Karas died.
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He was born in 1926 in Warsaw, and apparently lived in Czechoslovakia. He collected the music of those imprisoned, many killed, at Terezein 1941-1941. He was 82, not a Jew, and apparently lived in nearby Bloomfield, here in the US.  He began teaching at the University of Hartford's Hartt School of Music in 1955.

We never knew. Obituary by Douglas Martin.
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Karas wrote the book, "Music in Terezin  1941-1945."
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The work of the composers was actually done in Terezin, that we visited and saw as a converted old army garrison with barracks with substantial brick walls and a grid of streets intersecting in orderly ways, in service in different capacities for several centuries.
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He collected 50 compositions, and those have been performed often. There were four concert orchestras there, many chamber groups, and an opera group  - fodder for the Nazi propaganda about the fine conditions for living there.

Terezin.

When the Red Cross came to inspect, see "The Red Cross Visit to Theresienstadt," photos and text at ://www.scrapbookpages.com/czechrepublic/theresienstadt/theresienstadtghetto/history/redcrossvisit.html/, the old and sick were gassed. Flowers appeared in boxes, and there was a new "chocolate shop."  The Red Cross was duly impressed and wrote a report of good conditions there for temporary housing for Jews.

See a propaganda film itself, at YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OlIMAJF3kic, a "documentary" -"Theresienstadt: Ein Dokumentarfilm aus dem judischen Seidlun."  This may be a portion of a larger film on Auschwitz?

Read at that site the history of Theresienstadt, its early history, and death statistics. 
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But it was a place of execution, death by disease, suffering, for some 140,000 Jews over time, including Petr Ginz, see Petr Ginz, Lens, Places, Lens and Legacy. See a photo of some of the children there at the time of the Red Cross visit, and an orchestra performing there,  from the US Holocaust Museum Exhibit at ://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007463/
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Name names:
  • Composer Viktor Ullman, studied under Schoenberg; 
  • also Hans Krasa, 
  • Gideon Klein, 
  • Pavel Haas. 

Hans Krasa and "Brundibar."


Krasa had begun work on a children's opera in Prague with another musician, Adolf Hoffmeister, librettist; and it found its way to the ghetto-concentration camp at Terezin.  See WNYC at ://www.wnyc.org/music/articles/22122He oversaw its performance, and it became a particular favorite at the camp (performed 55 times) - a children's opera, "Brundibar."  See also "Welcome to Brundibar," at http://www.brundibar.ca/; and from PBS at http://www.pbs.org/now/arts/brundibar.html
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Mr. Karas did a revision for performances, and presented it in Czech in 1975, and in English in 1977. The story:  two children, thwarted in getting milk for their ailing mother by an evil organ grinder.
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The obituary ends with a quotation from Mr. Karas: "When I started my research, I used to have nighmares. And guilt. I'd pick up a piece of chocolate and couldn't eat it." Then he got over it, saying that Czechs can get used to anything, even the gallows.