Sunday, March 2, 2014

Terezin, Theresienstadt: Alice Herz-Sommer, Musician, Survivor

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The musicians among prisoners at Terezin were allowed to live, some of them, and they performed brilliantly under circumstances where death waited for so many.  Meet Alice Herz-Sommer, now 107 and enjoying life and still a musician: http://www.youtube.com/user/TheLadyInNumberSix 

Playing the music: She and others did, while the transport trains moved in and out, day after day, including to the place where the tracks ended.  Even now, shadows at day's end show a Terezin still largely abandoned, a view from the little restaurant open for talk and basic food.  These are barracks in this old garrison town, where Germans faked good treatment of Jews.Alice Herz-Sommer would have stayed, most likely, in one of these garrison blocks. Now, she is the Lady in Number Six.  Is this the number 6 her current residence in London? Or does it possibly refer to a Theresienstadt location? That not likely.  Will listen-watch the video again.




During our stay, the town was beginning a restoration, see http://www.terezin.cz/en/index.asp, with many vacant buildings and old ammunition dug-outs occupied by persons in need. Other areas already boasted good housing, and the only restaurant we found is probably augmented my many more now. Other survivors were interviewed in 2010 regarding the music. See http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/jun/13/terezin-ghetto-jews-holocaust-vulliamy

Monday, November 26, 2012

Prague Children. Rainer Maria Rilke. Poet from a Crucible.


Prague as Crucible for the Arts
Victorian, Edwardian Prague and Rainer Maria Rilke

Does a place of birth matter; its location may be no more than where the mother was.  Or does a place of birth start rolling a ball of influences, affecting parents, the child, in ways that only later emerge in full.  Rainer Maria Rilke is a poet, born in Prague in 1875, whose parents' conflicts and choices for his education left him reeling.  A poet-mind, put in court-achievement-status settings, and the military.  See bio at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/503783/Rainer-Maria-Rilke

Rilke resurfaces today in an unlikely place:  The National Geographic, May 2012, where a traveler with supposedly terminal disease, travels nonetheless and so, keeps himself alive -- he recalls lines of Rilke, see issue at http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/cheating-death/.  These lines must be in the public domain:

 "Ah the ball that we dared, that we hurled into infinite space, doesn't it fill our hands differently with its return: heavier by the weight of where it has been." 
That, from Cheating Death, by Edward Raedicker-Henderson. Article begins at page 105.
 Today, post-Victorian, post-Edwardian, we would leave out the Ah. What substitutes in 2012, for that Ah?  Go back to Beowulf.  Hwaet! No, too authoritarian.  How about Ommmmm.  Better, but too esoteric.  How about silence and simple hands clasped with straight fingers mated up, to get attention.  Better. Do we need sound? Focus. What does it.

The thought that follows, is what is the feeling when the ball hurled out, does not come back.  Must the hurler yearn for it, in order for it to come back?  What of mere curiosity:  I hurled that entity, that ball of whatever, off on its own into infinite space, for reasons that made sense at the time, balanced values at the time, but what happened to it. There is a yearning. Victorian-Edwardian concepts live in modern lives. Poetry: its own non-language.

Prague.  What if the parents had not been so divided in Prague, the one heading for the glory places, the other into stolid, dependable officer-school for the child.  What if the child had come to fruition early and recognized. Or did the experience of being hurled, as a poetry-child, into the military, and rejected by mother, create the genius. Ask.

Hurling.  Field hockey in the air --  a Celtic, Irish sport -- brutal, demanding.  See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AM-kB1e96CA.  Is that the experience of, say, the idea, the child, the ball hurled out there that does not come back.

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Disposition of Kafka Papers. Prague: Be a Contender


Prague: Why Not Intervene to Claim Kafka's Papers
.
Fetch! It Is Getting Late!

Update October 15, 2012.   
"Woman must relinquish Kafka papers, judge says."  NYT at A9.

See also http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/news/world/woman-must-relinquish-kafka-papers-judge-says-657669

October 15, 2012.  Summary:  Israel's national library shall receive the documents written  by Franz Kafka and friend Max Brod. Mr. Brod's former secretary had possession, had sold some.  Mr. Brod had bequeathed them to her.  Her daughter, in turn after the mother's death, sought to retain.  Issue:  were the documents bequeathed in trust, or as gift.  Trust, so far.  Ms. Hoffe may appea.

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Earlier overview: 

Kafka's papers, what remains, are the subject of heavy litigation in Israel. The relevant will apparently leaves open the possibility of the papers placed in a public archive not necessarily in Israel. As quoted in the NYT Mag at 37, Max Brod's will from 1961 (Max Brod as the friend of Kafka who received the papers) apparently provides that the papers are to be deposited
"with the library of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the municipal library in Tel Aviv, or another public archive in Israel or abroad (emphasis added)."
Kafka is a Son of Prague. Prague. Is anybody home? Prague? Prague? Do it! Intervene! Prague - intervene to get the papers back. You have lawyers. The man is buried in your Jewish Quarter. There is a heritage to reclaim. Go! The unforgettable visuals -- in the Jewish Quarter -- the wall bug, and the empty suit - see Prague, Franz Kafka, Empty Suit, Giant Bug.

The point here is not only to educate people about Prague's Franz Kafka. It is to show that this life, manic in a way, interesting, sad, neurotic, magnetic, exciting, tragic, odd and should be part of Prague's heritage -- not in Jerusalem or Tel Aviv or Germany, for heaven's sake.

1. Who? Franz Kafka.

Franz Kafka: prodigious novelist, diarist, sketch writer, manuscript producer, and a vaguely-practicing Jew, was born in 1883 in Wossack, south of Prague, to a dry-goods merchant father and more well-to-do mother. He was well-educated in German schools, German being the cultured area language of the day. He wrote and wrote, destroyed most of his own work, died of TB in 1924. Some works remain, the subject of the Israeli litigation.

Details of his life are known, see rough summary at FN 1

2. Litigation story about the remnants of Kafka's work.

Find a fine review of events in the September 20, 2010, in the New York Times Magazine article: Kafka's Last Trial.

Basic issue: Who is executor of what, as to which will, and who is beneficiary of what? Rights flow from that determination.

3. The Beneficiary argument:

The sisters now claiming the papers as their private property. Are they beneficiaries or mere executors of a far earlier will, in which case the papers revert.

Although Kafka incinerated some 90% of his own writing, some 2/3 of what remained ended up in the Bodleian Library at Cambridge *; the last 1/3 of that 10% remnant of a total unknown (herein The Batch) stayed in his friend's possession, Max Brod. Max moved to Israel with it, and died in 1968.

The Batch then ostensibly passed to his secretary and amour-likely, Esther Hoffe. In 1988, she auctioned The Trial for two million. It ended up in Germany. Kafka's three sisters died in the death camps. Not a nice place for his papers. He is not even German himself.

Esther Hoffe died in 2007 in Israel, leaving The Batch to her daughters, Eva Hoffe and Ruth Weisler who escaped Prague in the Nazi era. They want the papers sold at their profit to Germany (Germany!) -- the German Archive in Marbach. What? Kafka's sisters were killed in the Shoah. His religious-orientation group, etc.... The papers they do not sell to Germany, they want kept in their Swiss (Zurich) and Israeli (Tel Aviv) bank vaults; and/or in Eva's apartment on Spinoza Street in Tel Aviv with her multiple multiple pi square root to the nth degree cats. Perhaps some 40-100 of the darlings.

Kafka as anyone's private property?? See details at the NYT Mag.

Apparently, Brod himself was thinking of depositing The Batch at the Hebrew University at Jerusalem. But he never followed up. Esther Hoffe herself had planned to deposit The Batch at Marbach, but she also never followed up. So now we have The Daughters. Or just Eva Hoffe.

Eva wants Kafka

Is Ruth out of it? She married and moved away, and it is Eva who has lived with her papers and cats for 40 years. Ruth is probably still in. Will of Max Brod: Stay tuned.

Prague: You can be a contender, see Marlon Brando, On the Waterfront, at ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0waNRaz6wU/

4. The Executor argument.

The National Library of Israel is crying foul. They say that the succession of possessors after Brod are executors of Brod's will, and that not beneficiaries; and want the complete will of Mr. Brod produced. Eva has produced a portion. Court action ongoing. If the Library prevails, the papers revert to Brod's estate. His will, they say, says the papers to to the Library, or its equivalent:

Tel Aviv is not interested, but that leaves not just the Hebrew University -- but another public archive abroad and not necessarily in Israel as A Contender.

Papers to Prague, says this corner of the world. Prague has a claim to the Kafka papers.

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FN 1 Prague: Franz Kafka moved to Prague at 18, began clerical jobs and sporadic writing. At University, studying law (after other areas did not interest him) he formed a close friendship with Max Brod - who figures mightily in the later tale of Kafka's papers.

Kafka had a regular career life, nothing spectacular. He went into business pursuits, and a family business for a while. Brod encouraged him to publish some works, which Kafka did in 1918 or so.

His frequent and varied escapades with the ladies are a puzzle for another time. Poor lasses: had to be either nice or not, and twain could not meet. A lifetime doing the nasty, as one biography site puts it? Not him, see ://www.kafka-franz.com/kafka-Biography.htm/. Attraction, repulsion for what he was doing, neurotic perhaps, adequacy, inadequacy, all that. Poor Kafka. Lucky ladies for not marrying that one. Then along came Felice, to whom he wrote letters (sold for a pittance in the 1950's), Gerti and Grete, all nice girls. Meanwhile, Kafka went into a health sanitorium. Did Grete have his child? Or is that tabloid fodder? Grete was later beaten to death by the Nazis in 1944, so the answer is gone.

Kafka was exempt from soldier service in WWI because of his job at an insurance institute partially owned by the government. He was diagnosed: tuberculosis. Felice left the field and married someone else, Bauer. Kafka probably said, "Whew. Dodged that bullet." Then along came Julie and Milena Jesenska: Milena's daughter wrote a book about her mother and her mother's relationship with Kafka. Then Dora Diamant who apparently never recovered from her awestruck and possessive love of Kafka. His health deteriorated, and he died in 1924. He is buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Prague.

While he lived, Kafka himself burned some 90% of his works, see NYT Magazine 9/20/2010.

Kafka instructed Brod to burn his works. Brod didn't. He edited and published all he could find. Brod moved to Tel Aviv with the writings, to escape the Nazis. Did he save Kafka for the ages, or merely disregard a friend's wishes? See again://www.kafka-franz.com/kafka-Biography.htm


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* The Cambridge Guide to Kafka, see google book by Julian Preece at page 208 ff, at http://books.google.com/books?id=wVz2auyt81sC&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=Bodleian+library+cambridge+kafka&source=bl&ots=pKpCLY9qI4&sig=ZgwA5UY2d8hgozaGg8tLTQ5DYjU&hl=en&ei=zDMGTb_pKYG88gaA8rmwCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false/; The library: see ://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/bodley/about/operations/legaldeposit/historical

Sunday, August 8, 2010

Pilzen, Plzn, Pilsener Urquell - The Brew. Who Got Pilsner Urquell After Nazi Confiscation

Two Families, the Reich, and a Brewery

A History and a Confiscation

Pilsner Urquell
Plzensky Prazdroj
The Historic Pilsen Brewery
Property Confiscation, Unjust Enrichment - Economic Symbols of the Shoah



Brewery History and Ownership. Issue summary:

1.  1900 until the Reich: Wilhelm Guggenheim; (with partner Heinrich Abeles until Abeles' pre-Reich death)
2.  Enter the Reich. Company (Brewery and Distribution interests) confiscated and annexed to the Strelow Company (Arische), we think.  Guggenheim, wife and one child  finally migrated to Brazil, says one source;  Chile says another, with documentation apparently; two other children then in Britain as part of humanitarian transport
3.  After WWII:  Brewery and distributorship nationalized.
4. Then Communism.
5. Then private again.
6. And South African Breweries now.
10% shares of Pilsner Urquell is said to be held by the "original" owners before nationalization
That is different from original owners before Nazi confiscation
Should confiscated property revert in interest to those who owned it at confiscation. This is not a matter of proof of ownership. Who got it?

I.  Town histories. Successful breweries are traced with pride.

Many brewery cities have museums and tours and take great pride in their product:  so does Plzen, Pilzen, Pilsen, Plzn.  See all that fine history at ://www.click4hotel.eu/hu/nevezetessegek-pilzen-plzen.

Slavs in what was known as Bohemia at the time, were brewing and serving Byzantine envoys as early as 448 AD. They grew their own hops by 859 and seriously brewed by 1088. Wenceslas II himself founded Plzen. O, Good King (The St. Stephen's Day walker really just a prince?). Or was this one a King? See ://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue5.3/urquell.html/

Fast forward (or rather, stagger and weave) to medieval times, and when they found a recipe for success in "bottom-brewing" that produced the lovely light color and taste, that devotees of Pilsner welcome. This became a sot's tragedy for the separate brewers in 1838 when the separate licensed brewers had to dump the brew in the streets because the fermenting went bad, and - yes! The solution in the form of a uniform methodology, and a fine new big building in which to (br-a-a-ap) do it. Read at that site about the history of the huge synagogue there, now a museum; the Jewish monuments. People disagree about whether even later "improvements" in brewing, to stainless instead of wood casks, worked. Go vote.

A friend had recalled that family members in Europe had interests in the Pilsen Urquell Brewery at some time, and we checked to see if any interest remained by the time of WWII.  We find no connection with their surnames yet. We remain interested in any Jewish ownership or other interest or involvement in the Brewery prior to 1900, however. Who were the brewmasters? 

II.  But Town and Brewery Histories leave out important parts. 
 
WWII confiscation from Jewish ownership 
and whether the Jewish families got their compensation.

Purchasers of the Pilsner Urquell Brewery in 1900 - Heinrich Abeles and Wilhelm Guggenheim.

What we have so far. Rosa Abeles.

Rosa Abeles was the wife of Heinrich Abeles, and mother of Hertha Abeles.  Hertha married Wilhelm Guggenheim. The families had known each other for years, and became business partners with the purchase of the Brewery - Heinrich Abeles had been in the distributing business. See the account of Rosa's life by Margo Lohr in Hamburg, Germany: "For the pause and rememberance (sic) -- against denial and oblivion" reads the closing thought. Read the original at ://www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de/?MAIN_ID=7&BIO_ID=2630. Or go to stolpersteine-hamburg.de and search for Rosa Abeles.

The story of this Pilsner Urquell ownership family - the combined Abeles-Guggenheim story (especially with other Guggenheims at the time in South America and America) is compelling.  This should be in the museum at Pilsen.  Is it? After the years of the Reich, and the confiscation and concentration camps, who got the Brewery interests? Should they have?  Wilhelm Guggenheim does not appear to be related to Solomon Guggenheim and the Guggenheim Foundation, Guggenheim Museum, NY and other interests.

 THE GUGGENHEIM AND ABELES FAMILIES
PILSNER URQUELL HISTORY
.
A. 1900-1945
A summary from the work of Margo Lohr, Stolpersteine in Hamburg
.
In 1900, the Pilsner Urquell Brewery was bought by Wilhelm Guggenheim and the beer distributor, Heinrich Abeles, see Rosa Abeles' memorial (mother of Wilhelm's wife, Hertha) through Stolper Steine in Hamburg at ://www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de/?MAIN_ID=7&BIO_ID=2630

Guggenheim married Abeles' daughter, Hertha, and they had three children: Daniel Fritz Walter Yechiel; Heinrich Zwi; and Marianne Bluemel Berta. When Abeles died, Guggenheim took over the distributing business.  The Guggenheim family was in Hamburg, Germany, at the time. The business grew- including a restaurant at Pilsen.

1933:  National  Socialists in power.
 The Reich governor issued a Sicherungsanordnung - a confiscation order as to all the Abeles passports and assets. By another Nazi order, all Jews had to pay to the Nazis 1/6 of their assets, in return for which they got a small living expense stipend.

1937:  The Abeles Company was now gone. Did not exist.  Jewish companies were transferred to Aryan companies. "Arische".

Wilhelm Guggenheim was allowed to go to Pilzen to wrap up matters. The Abeles and Guggenheim rights in the brewery and distribution were being given to the Strelow Company: arische, or Aryan.  Apparently all was confiscated, including some real estate and a restaurant.  By agreement, Hertha's mother, Rosa Abeles, was to get a stipend for her life, but that was reneged in many ways.  And, as part of overall Jewish disenfranchisement, the Guggenheim-Abeles business in Hamburg was seized, and the Guggenheim family home had to be sold at a pittance. They moved into a small apartment, where a neighbor denounced them. This led to a detective coming about to see if they intended to emigrate. They moved into another apartment.

The Guggenheims sent two of their children, Heinrich age 16 and Marianne age 12,  to England as part of a humanitarian transport. Rosa's daughter Erika (sister to Hertha) (married to Karl Wolff) emigrated to America. Rosa had had to sell her house, and was in an apartment.

Then Wilhelm Guggenheim was arrested, and the Gestapo released him because of his fine service in WWI.  Rosa moved into a little Inn owned by two sisters, but they eventually killed themselves because of the Nazi persecution. Wilhelm and Hertha hid. And stayed hidden. Fritz, another son I think, hid on his own elsewhere.

Friends provided food. Wilhelm had been prominent - kept trying to get out with his family - most anywhere. See the site for the list of places he tried to arrange. The site says he finally got visas for Brazil for all 3. Remember that Marianne and Heinrich were in Britain.

Crates of valuables, treasures, museum quality artifacts, never got to them; those they traced had accrued fees too high. The Stolpersteine site has people's recollections of what was in the crates. Treasures.

Did any of the children eventually get to claim the property? [Did elder brother Siegfried Guggenheim obtain it? See the container lists of the museum at the findingaids site]

Rosa Abeles, mother of Hertha (who was the wife of Wilhelm) was still in Hamburg, then was shunted first to a Jews' House, then to the railroad station for "resettlement" in 1942. She was sent to Theresienstadt .She had to pay for her own passage.  Jews had been forced to turn in their woollens and furs. She died in Theresienstadt in the "infirmary", pulmonary disease so says the Solper Steine.

[She perished there in 1942, see the Yad Vashem Central Data Base, Shoah victims listing, at ://www.yadvashem.org/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_FL?last_name=Abeles&first_name=Rosa&location=Hamburg&next_form=results]


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This verbal recollection, and collection of remembrances, is in Hamburg, and is part of the project  Solpersteine, places and biographies from the Holocaust. For a description of the deportation process for Jews in Hamburg, see ://www1.uni-hamburg.de/rz3a035//moorweiden.html/


OTHER SOURCES:

One Strelow was an architect in 1935 in Hamburg, Chr. H. I. Strelow, see http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/rz3a035//moorweiden.html/  A Leopold Strelow had been an architect there in 1907 or so. See ://www1.uni-hamburg.de/rz3a035//Litzmannstadt.html No beer interests seen yet.

Later information: Wilhelm Guggenheim is the younger brother of Siegfried Guggenheim, who resettled in New York, see ://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=430964#serI/ , that other family members were already well settled in South America. At first we believed that Wilhelm, Hertha and Fritz went to Chile, see ://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=430964/.  That site tracks the Siegfried Guggenheim family estate (museum pieces, correspondence, etc). As to the two children earlier sent to England for safety, this required money for the children's support, and that many families could not afford. They were fortunate. See http://www.kintera.org/site/pp.asp?c=arLPK7PILqF&b=249802 / Heinrich may now use the name Henry Griffith, see http://www.ajr.org.uk/index.cfm/section.searchnotices/initial/G  But this site says Brazil again - see http://www.ajr.org.uk/index.cfm/section.searchnotices/initial/G   Recent contact with a family member confirms the Brazil.destination and the name.

There is now a film, a documentary, by Jens Huckereide about the Guggenheim home in Hamburg, "Ab Nach Rio", Die Guggenheim Atke, see ://www.diethede.de/diethede/projects/projects2.html and the photograph there. Is that the Guggenheims? Gone to Rio. It commemorates the 60th year since the Shoah, or Holocaust. The film focuses on the history of the owners of the home: the Jewish Guggenheims, then acquired from them in 1938 (forced sale), by the Fritsche family, Michael and Claus Fritsche (we are trying to figure out the German -- let the cursor hover over the German word and Google will translate it), and only in 2007 sold to the State and to be a kindergarten, we understand.  Stadtvilla Rothenbaumchaussee 121, Hamburg. There have been showings of the film this year.

There remain proofs of the business interests. See photos and reproductions of phone book listings for the Guggenheim-Abeles business before the War, at ://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?cj=1&srchb=r&gss=affiliate&rank=1&gl=allgs&gspl=1%2cAny+Locality&pcc=2&prox=1&gsln=Guggenheim&gsfn=Wilhelm&o_xid=0001231454&o_lid=0001231454. There are many, in different cities, Berlin, Baden-Wurttemberg, Hamburg, etc.

There is a photo of Wilhelm Guggenheim with a baby as well, that we understand is the son Heinrich.  There are records of a Wilhelm Guggenheim out of Hamburg during the war years, then a Wilhelm Guggenheim going to Switzerland. That is a different branch. The Wilhelm Guggenheim in issues here is the Hamburg family. It is a large and distinguished family, with roots going back centuries, especially in Worms, Germany. For researching any family, look up findagrave.com. We understand that Guggenheims stem from the same root, perhaps in Worms, Germany, with prominence as early as the 18th Century.

1938.  Confiscation.  Curtain down, for some.  The Nazi confiscation process: See Robbing the Jews at ://www.lootedart.com/NNAURN730391; and ://www.ushmm.org/research/center/publications/details.php?content=2008-09-01/  Who is this other Guggenheim who was a drugstore goods wholesaler, and who, as Guggenheim & Co in 1938 also lost it? See page 265, Google book, Aryanization in Hamburg
by Frank Bajohr. Examples of confiscations: pages 290, 160, 246, 214, 245. It is reviewed at ://hgs.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pdf_extract/19/2/309The Pilsner Urquell Brewery was in Czech land, however, so would not be in the Hamburg accountings. Process again:  first, you have to report. See ://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/appropriation6.htm
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B.  1945 - 2010
Post-War

1945.  The Guggenheim-Abeles account in the Stolpersteine ends with the death of Rosa Abeles. The brewery was nationalized in 1945.  Did the same Strelow Company own it at the time, so that they are the ones who own the portion of it now.


There were Strelows who died in the War, one a pilot, Hans; another a U-Boat captain, Siegfried; see Buchenwald Inmate. Tale of Two Families.

1945.  Nationalization.  Would the arische or aryan Strelows have received any compensation when the company was nationalized after the war? See ://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue5.3/urquell.html/ Same family?

1989.  Communism fell (the "Velvet Revolution"), and the brewery has been publicly owned ever since. Who got what at that time?  See the ownership known so far. As a publicly owned company, Pilsner Urquell or Pilzen Urquell, has done well, and has bought other breweries.  Here is who owns what, as of the time of the Brewing Techniques dot com site:
  • 51% held by a Czech bank.
  • 10%  held by the "Licensed Brewer's Association, a group comprising the descendants of the original shareholders before nationalization" -- that from the Brewing Techniques site. *
 * "Original shareholders before nationalization" got 10%.  Licensed Brewer's Association.

We cannot find who makes up that group. Is this, or does it stem from the Strelows in Hamburg. The wording appears to exclude the people who owned the business when it was confiscated, the Guggenheim and Abeles families. Did the Strelows retain it and now own the 10%?

We understand that the Guggenheims got nothing. Start with Guide to the Siegfried Guggenheim Collection 1791-1961 at ://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=430964#a0

Tracking Interests

If the Strelows got Pilsner Urquell in 1989, then for their six or seven years of enjoying confiscated property ownership, they are much and unjustly enriched. The Guggenheims, for 38 years of ownership and then the confiscation, lost out on it completely. There are reparations procedures, and the proofs seem clear enough, but each family makes its own decisions for its own reasons. See FN 1 for information so far about the Strelows.

Ownership changes at the Brewery:
  • In 1999, SAB bought a controlling interest (44% market share - is that controlling here? - here we go. Pilsner buys Radegast and after puts and calls and calls and puts and options run wild, SAB has the whole wad 100% by 2001 ) in Pilsner Urquell - South Africa Breweries. See agreement to acquire at ://online.hemscottir.com/ir/sab/rnsfeed.jsp?item=7529077752068SABMiller.  Suds on Six Continents. See ://www.sabmiller.com/ and the moving timeline of acquisitions and mergers at ://www.sabmiller.com/index.asp?pageid=27And the restaurant (was it in Pilsen?) became a chain - see ://www.sabmiller.com/index.asp?pageid=149&newsid=1112  Pilsner Urquell Original Restaurants.  A new one just opened in 2009 in Prague.  Pilsner Urquell Kulatak in Vitezne Square.
  • Shares in SAB Miller pay dividends at $.68 per, "group revenue" at $26,350,000.00. See ://www.sabmiller.com/files/companysnapshot/SABMiller_company_snapshot.pdf
  • Is there a cloud on a title where property was stolen, acquired by confiscation? Experts, please stand up. Curious. Is there a statute of limitations on reparations? More curious. Why not just do something really nice for the owners from whom the brewery was confiscated. No fuss, no lawsuits, just a quiet really nice thing for them. A conscience-clearer, fog-benevolence. Let's ask the Chairman. What's the bank that owns so much of it? Ask their Chairman.
See also ://www.drinkamerican.us/faq/59-who-owns-what-beers.html    (why drink American if the other is better in taste and purity of ingredients?)(is it?)

Modern Annual Report and History.  SABMiller in its 2005 Annual Report gives a modern history of Pilsner Urquell, known in the document by its Czech name, Plzensky Prajdroj. The history does not go back far enough for this cultural icon, and symbol of the Shoah. See ://www.prazdroj.cz/en/o_spolecnosti/_download/prazdroj_ar_05.pdf   See Michael John Short smile.  Ask if he knows of the Guggenheims?

Ownership:  This site confirms the Guggenheim earlier ownership, and lists Wilhelm Guggenheim as "former owner of beer company". See http://www.ajr.org.uk/index.cfm/section.searchnotices/initial/G



 * Something like po cele generace inspiruje Pilsner Urquell svou nezamenitelnou chuti nejen emelce, vedce, vynalezce, ci spisovatele, ale de zdrojem inspirace prop kazdeho, kdo ho jen ochutna.

Ms. Google says that means "inspiration for generations of Pilsner Urquell beer its unique taste not only emelce, scientists, inventors, or writers, but the prop de inspire everyone he had a taste." So the company done good!  Attention, Henry Griffith and Marianne! Not interested? Fine. Just so you know.  See ://translate.google.com

C.  Wilhelm, younger brother of Siegfried Guggenheim-

The family. The Guggenheims go  back to 1794 in terms of official tallies. A branch may be the Solomon Guggenheims NY, as in Guggenheim Museum and other good works. For an idea of the reach, contacts, interests of this family and its far-flung family members, see the information from the Siegfried Guggenheim site, Guide to the Siegfried Guggenheim Collection 1791-1969, at ://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=430964#a0
What happened with Wilhelm, who received the Abeles portion of the Pilsner Urquell Brewery before the Reich, upon the death of Heinrich Abeles. Did the Abeles family have any interest left after the death of Heinrich, and what was given to them by Wilhelm for Heinrich's interest.  Wilhelm's children: two went to England during the War.A Brazil component thereafter is beyond this look.

See Germany Road Ways: Buchenwald Inmate  Siegfried Guggenheim also was in Buchenwald briefly. See http://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=430964, estate of Siegfried Guggenheim, correspondence; and http://digital.cjh.org/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=430964&local_base=GEN01.
.......................................................................................
FN 1

Strelow family.   
Annexed the Brewery at Confiscation from the Guggenheims

Interest moves back to the Strelows, the company that annexed the Brewery at confiscation.  Tracking, tracking. It is not an unusual name. How to tell which is which.

There is an Albert Strelow in the index to a history of the Ford Motor Company, and the moguls in industry over decades, see http://cgi.ebay.com/FORD-MOTOR-COMPANY-DEFINITIVE-ILLUS-HISTORY-EPIC-BOOK-/130417957109; and Albert Strelow was one of the first investors, see http://www.railbirds.com/blog/333119/71510-today-in-history.html.

There is a Gallerie Heike Strelow, see ://www.galerieheikestrelow.de/cms/front_content.php; and Heike Strelow is also an author, see ://www.flipkart.com/oekologische-aesthetik-heike-strelow-theorie-book-3764324236; lots of people named Strelow over here, see ://pipl.com/directory/name/Strelow/William -see also the name Roger.


As confirmation of the ownership, there is a Strelow & Co. notation for a Pilsner Urquell beer coaster at ://www.beer-coasters.eu/en/not-beer-change/my-coasters/Prazdroj.html?ppns=30; and also at ://www.pivni-tacky.net/de/ceske-pivovary/pilsner-urquell-plzen-109/

Hans Strelow, Siegfried Strelow. Other source:  An "elite of the Third Reich" is Siegfried Strelow, and also Hans Strelow, see pages 335-336, ://books.google.com/books?id=inwd2rDaLm4C&pg=PA336&lpg=PA336&dq=Strelow+Company+Reich&source=bl&ots=-JXsNWwi8v&sig=4-hXhGxVfVEQCKFGJVc6MqvkMuA&hl=en&ei=NElhTK33EYL6lwfNpujDCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCUQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false .

Both received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.

Read about Hans the pilot - A "German Luftwaffe figher ace", see ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Strelow/.  See also ://www.military-art.com/mall/more.php?ProdID=16657 (do a find for Strelow).  He was shot down behind Soviet lines, and killed himself to avoid capture. Someone vet Wikipedia on that. Siegfried, the U-Boat commander, is not listed as a relative of Hans, and no indication of death during wartime, see  ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siegfried_Strelow/  Common name, no relation probably.

For a time, we thought another family, Czech, might have an interest in the brewery at the time of WWII, but apparently not. We had posted more on the Strelows at the site concerning the only survivor of the European branch of that family, but have no confirmation that the information there is the confiscated brewery family same family.

The brewery, and war, and compare the families with various connections with it.  A Czech family, now decimated, who identified with it in the past;  a German Jewish family who built it up for 38 years, and it was taken from them, and many of them got out and resettled elsewhere; and a German Aryan family who got it by confiscation. Did they win? Does it matter. To whom. Skycams looking back.  See Germany Road Ways: Buchenwald Inmate  

2010.  There are 30 Strelows in the phone book in Hamburg (not necessarily the same family, of course, but a continuing name presence).  There are two "Hans" and a hyphenation as the first name. The pilot's line? GAnd the company still deals in -- go look at the bubbles at http://www.strelow.de/index.php.  - adult beverages.  The tall glass of bubbly there has a nice head. Also wines?  There is a nice picture of "the team" and we see no Strelows, so maybe this is no connection at all. Did they sell and sell the name with it? Or never have it.


Ms. Google Translator says, in pertinent part, that the Strelow company has ties to the deep past -- translating the Strelow business website at://www.strelow.de/index.php: 

"Already in 1891 (the Strelows or the Guggenheim-Abeles?) the foundation stone for the traditional Hamburg company has been laid. In addition to the tradition, it is to be a joy for us, always a valued partner for the hospitality and retail.

"We offer our customers a high quality and market-oriented Topsortiment with a variety of domestic and international beverage specialties."
..................................................................................

Henry Griffiths Update, much later than received.  This is 2012. 

A comment that I cannot publish because it gives a real name and an email, but here is the neutral part: "The Picture of Wilhelm Guggenheim with a baby was posted by me. The baby was my father, Henry Griffiths, nee Heinrich Zwi Guggenheim. My name is______________________(deleted identifying information)"

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Holocaust. Perished in the Shoah. The Loss of a Czech Family 1941-45. These Individuals Lived.

Holocaust. A Family Accounting

 Genocide Individualized; Not Just "Group"

The European branch of Czech Family A.
.
All perished in the Holocaust
Except One: The Survivor
.
I.  Yad Vashem
II. The Family A - Grandfather
III.  The Family B - Grandmother
.....................................................................................

The Final Solution, architect:  Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrict, Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, see new novel HHhH (English translation of HHhH -- Himmler's brain was Heydrich) by Laurent Binet, translated by Sam Taylor, at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/books/review/hhhh-a-novel-by-laurent-binet.html.  How could any of this happened.  Find out the mindset, the courses of action and inaction. In 1946, at Nuremberg, German Chief of Staff, Keitel, said that in 1938 the Reich would not have attacked Czechoslovakia if the West had supported Prague. HHhH at p.80.

Here, we are tracking the members of the European branch of an entire Czech family, perished in the Holocaust, the Shoah, according to records and the testimonial source laid out here. This is not offered with the precision of a geneology, but to demonstrate this other truth: That horrendous events presented as crowds can fade. Memory, and respect, require individuals. The danger is objectifying those individuals, like specimens, turning what had been individuals into a thing to be examined. No. Not right. Keep it Family A, B, surname C.  This family is one example among many. Individuals in this family were sent to many ghettoes and concentration-extermination or slave-labor camps, as listed.

The Jewish tradition is not ours, but the point about mindsets here, leading to genocides and killings, or at the least elsewhere, extreme exclusions, is not limited to one religious or ethnic group.See FN 1



I.  Yad Vashem

A. Source and process:  Yad Vashem Central Database. This is part of an ongoing memorial and historical documentation effort by a large institution-complex dedicated to that purpose.  Yad Vashem collects records and other evidence of the Holocaust, known as the Shoah in Hebrew. Victims' names are part of that work, and are coming online. Yad Vashem receives information, coordinates, and publishes. See ://www.yadvashem.com.

B. Clearinghouse and coordinator.  This is one source among others. Information may be as a Testimonial from someone who knew or had a relationship with the missing person. Yad Vashem provides a form; and then cross-references to lists from the Third Reich:

1.   prisoners on the transports to the camps or a ghetto;
2.   inmates at the camps.

There may be no cross-reference at all. The person is just lost, no conclusion as to death. Or, remote as it may be, the person indeed got out, found money, passage to somewhere, and went, without leaving a trace, or contacting anyone thereafter.  People still hope.

C.  Testimonials:  This is personal good faith information, by identified people.  At least, if there is no Nazi record,  the Testimonial is there to say that this individual lived.

If the last Holocaust record had been that the person had been on a transport or inmate list, there will  be an entry by Yad Vashem of presumed death in the summary paragraph as you do the search.  The entry will speak with the person's first name. That, in effect, personalizes the entry and lifts it out of mere objective administration detail.  Then come the words, most of the time: "Perished in the Shoah;" or "Perished;" where the camp list at liberation did not include the person's name.   Jana perished in the Shoah. Karel perished in Majdanek, Camp.

D.  Survivors.  Victims who lived are not included in the database. Their history in the Shoah is their story to tell, if they so choose; and is not the focus of Yad Vashem's database. Yad Vashem welcomes those stories, and evidence, however. The entire memorial effort is ongoing, and huge.

E.  Memorials and historical record.  First, do a Testimonial if you know of someone, and do not see it in the database. Second,  keep looking for a person's records at Yad Vashem. New data comes online.

Records also vary in spellings and data - a German making notes of a person speaking in Czech, when there are hundreds in that line, may vary widely. The listing may be under something not anticipated.   Yad Vashem. See ://www.yadvashem.org/wps/portal/  See also ://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Vashem.html; and http://www.youtube.com/user/YadVashem#p/a

II.  THE FAMILY A

A.  Other spellings: Records vary.  Germans recording Czech; Mis-hearings, Typos.

B.  Dates:  Listed, as in Europe -- Day, Month, Year

C. Members of the Families A and B were in these Concentration, Labor Camps; Ghettoes  

Auschwitz-Birkenau, PL


        Izbica, Lublin PL a transit ghetto, see ://www.deathcamps.org/occupation/transit%20ghettos.html)

        Kaufering, DE - subcamp of Dachau, near Munich, see ://www.scrapbookpages.com/Dachauscrapbook/DachauLiberation/KauferingIVLiberation.html

        Litzmannstadt, Lodz PL - see http://www.ushmm.org/research/library/bibliography/?lang=en&content=lodz_ghetto (American Holocaust Museum material. Did they get it right?). The annual commemoration of the liquidation of the infamous Lodz Ghetto us pending: the Litzmannstadt Ghetto, in Poland. See ://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3606390.stm/ and http://auschwitztourguide.com/andrzej-strzelecki-the-deportation-of-jews-from-the-lodz-ghetto-2/ 

        Majdanek, Ujazdow, Lublin PL ://www.scrapbookpages.com/poland/majdanek/Majdanek.html

        Maly Trostonets, Minsk, Belorussia (USSR) ://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/malytrostenets.html

        Ossowa, PL (labor camp) see transport record, ://holocaustresearchproject.blogspot.com/2010/03/theresienstad-concentration-camp.html

        Raasika, Harjumaa, Estonia.  Raasiku is a Parish, Harju is a county, see ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raasiku_Parish.  Is the identification here as a hub in Estonia, with further transports elsewhere, such as  Vaivara, the largest Estonian concentration camp, at ://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Vaivara.html; or elsewhere in Estonia

        Riga, Vidzeme, Latvia, ://www.ccg.org/_domain/holocaustrevealed.org/Latvia/Latvian_Holocaust.htm

        Sobibor PL, see ://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Sobibor.html



        Theresienstadt:  Ghetto, Terezin (former garrison town) CZ - see ://history1900s.about.com/od/theresienstadt/a/terezin.htm

        Treblinka, Concentration Camp, Lublin  PL - see ://www.jewishgen.org/ForgottenCamps/Camps/TreblinkaEng.html


        II. FAMILY A

        A Grandfather's family
        Adolf  A: Two marriages

        A.  ADOLF A FIRST MARRIAGE;
        WIFE BELIEVED TO BE EMA

        1.  Adolf A
        Married Ema? See see entry, Hanna C (C here signifies a name by marriage), name comes up in later search for Eva A*)
        Probably deceased before the Holocaust?
        Nothing found in Yad Vashem,
        Adolph or Adolf
        Not in Prague of Pilsen databases
        No Testimonial form
        No record listings.

        Ema A
        Nothing found (probably deceased at the time, since Adolf had married Jana B, and both were probably deceased by the time of the Holocaust?)

        2.  Children of Adolf A and first wife Ema: 

        2.1  * Hanna C, a/k/a Khana, a/k/a C
        Born 27/04/1894 in Lipa
        Married Ludvig
        Father Adolf A
        Mother Ema [a search for Eva A produces this reference to Ema]
        Prague base
        15/03/1945
        To Theresienstadt
        To Auschwitz PL
        Testimony of Ema Pik, daughter of Hanna


        2.2  Josef A
        Married Frieda (see 3 children of Josef and Frieda below: Gerald, Karl, Julia)

        Multiple entries for a Josef A - someone can sort out the generations, which may be other families
        • Josef A born 26/06/1872
        Prague base
        03/06/1941
        To Theresienstadt CZ
        Perished
        • Josef A born 28/11/1891
         Prague base
        12/10/1942
        To Theresienstadt
        To Auschwitz PL
        Perished
        • Josef A born 24/09/1898 in Hungary
        Prague base
        Testimony form by uncle, Milos Kaspari:
        Spouse maiden name Fialova (no first name given)
        Merchant
        09/05/1942
        To Sobibor PL
        Perished
        • Josef A born 1898 (no date given) in Kolin CZ [looks like same person as 1898 above]
        Testimony form by daughter Hanna Seckel:
        Father's first name Karel
        Mother's first name Rose
        Spouse name Emilie Fialova
        1942
        To Sobibor PL
        Perished

        2.3  Hans

        "Hanus"A
        Born 03/05/1934 (that is May 3, 1934)
        Prague base
        13/07/1943

        To Theresienstadt
        To Auschwitz PL
        Perished


         3.   Children of Josef and Frieda A

        3.1  Gerald A - no information yet

        3.2  Karl A - several entries
        • Karel A
        Born 23/10/1917
        Prague base
        10/06/1942

        To Theresienstadt CZ
        To Majdanek, Ujazdow
        Perished
        • Karel A -- Not in same line?
        Born 16/04/1918

        Prague base
        Testimonial from Cousin Marta: parents Moritz A and Franciska Chitz
        Testimonial destination -Auschwitz
        Testimonial occupation - Student
        08/10/1942
        To Theresienstadt CZ
        To Treblinka, Lublin PL (records)
        Perished
        • Karel A
        Born 09/12/1923
        Prague base
        17/12/1941
        To Theresienstadt
        To Riga, Vidzeme Latvia
        Perished
        • Karel A
        Born 01/04/1926
        Prague base
        28/09/1944
        To Theresienstadt
        To Auschwitz
        Perished


        3.4   Robert A
        Married Irma - (see children of Robert and Irma below)

        There are two Robert A's
        • Robert A
        Birthdate suggests he is husband of Irma? *
        Prague base
        Born 21/12/1890
        17/12/1941
        To Theresienstadt CZ
        To Raasika, Harjumaa, Estonia
        Perished
        • Robert A - this is a much younger one.
        Born 1/2/1931
        Prague base
        24/10/1942
        To Theresienstadt CZ
        To Auschwitz PL
        Perished

        3. * Irma A, wife of Robert 

        Born 2/2/1885
        Austria
        11/1/1942
        From Vienna to Riga, Vidzeme, Latvia
        Perished


        4. Children of Robert and Irma A
        • Willi A
        No information
        But see:
        • Vilem A
        Born 19/11/1883
        Prague base
        To Theresienstadt CZ
        To Auschwitz PL
        Perished

        ......................................................................



        B.  ADOLF  A, SECOND MARRIAGE
        JANA B  A

        1.  Jana B A
        Probably deceased by the time of the Holocaust?
        No record in Yad Vashem for that spelling
        A/k/a Yana, see 3.2
        No record
        With son Ernest born 1896, she would be born, say,
         1876?
        No Testimonial form
        No listings.

        Alternates: Is she one of the following:
        •  Jana B'
        Born 1871 - Possible birthdate if Ernest born 1896
        Prague base
        To Theresienstadt
        To Treblinka
        15/10./1942
        Perished
        • Jana B''
        Born 1872 - Possible birthdate if Ernest born 1896
        Prague base
        To Theresienstadt
        To Treblinka
        22/10/1942
        Perished
        • Jana B '''
        Born 1899 - not a possible birthdate if Ernest born 1896
        Prague base
        To Theresienstadt
        To Maly Trostenets, Minsk
        Perished
        •  Jana B ''''
        Born 1920 - not a possible founding grandparent
        Prague base
        To Theresienstadt
        To Izbica, Lublin PL
        Perished

        2.  Children of Jana and Adolf A

        2.1  Otto A

        Had earlier emigrated to the US
        Would not be in the Holocaust database
        Married later, No children
        Born 1894
        Pilsen
        Died in US

        Remaining in Europe:

        2.2  Ernest A
        a/k/a Ernst; a/k/a A'
        Testimony plus two Records
        Spouse Melania C a/k/a Melanie a/k/a C' a/k/a C''
        Mother Jana a/k/a Yana
        Father Adolf
        Born 1896
        Age 48
        Prague base
        Banker
        To Litzmannstadt Ghetto, Lodz PL
        Perished 1942
        • Wife Melania C
        A/k/a  A, a/k/a  A'
        Testimonal form:
        Born 1897
        Housewife
        To Litzmannstadt, Lodz PL
        Perished 1942

        3.   Children of Ernst and Melania A
          3.1 . Edith A C
          a/k/a Edit; a/k/a  A'

          Married Siegfried a/k/a Sigi C a/k/a C'
          Born 23/2/1920
          Age 24
          Prague base
          Housewife
          To Auschwitz CZ
          Perished 1944

          3.2 .  Herbert A
          Born 11/3/1929
          Prague base
          16/10/1941
          Prague To Lodz Ghetto, Sulzfelder Strasse 23, Flat 35
          (Litzmannstadt)
          Testimony from Alfred:
          Pupil
          Herbert to Auschwitz CZ
          Perished



          3.3 .  Kathy A
          Katerina
          Testimony from Alfred
          Born 2/7/1933
          Marital status: Child
          To Auschwitz PL
          Perished

          3.4 . Alfred A (survivor) (emigrated to US)

          3.5.  Martha A
          See a Marta C a/k/a C'  a/k/a A'
          Prague base
          Housewife
          No birthdate
          Testimony page by Alfred
          But he identifies her as his niece
          (is this a daughter of Martha, his sister?)
          Conclusion of Yad Vashem:
          Perished

          3.6.  Helena A
          Married Richard C (see children below)
          Born 1898
          Prague base
          Testimony by Alfred
          Conclusion of Yad Vashem:
          Perished

          3.7. Julia A
          No information so far
          Married  ____________C (see children, below at 3)

          4.   Children of Julia A C
          • Is there a Robert  A as a child as well?  See earlier Robert A entries and check for generations.
          •  Jirka C
          No information
          Jirka, Jitka
          • Husband:  Jirka Married Karel C
          Karel C, husband of Jirka C (daughter of Julia A)
          Born 18/12/1905
          18/05/1942
          From Trebic CZ to Theresienstadt CZ
          To Lublin PL
          Perished

          5. Children of Helena A a/k/a A', and Richard C, a/k/a Rikhard, a/ka C
            5.1  Hanna C  a/k/a Khana
            Niece of Alfred A
            Testimony of Alfred:
            Born 1938
            Marital status: Child
            Conclusion of Yad Vashem:
            Perished

            There are many other C's, various spellings, numerous years.  See yadvashem.org

            5.2   Paul C
            Nephew of Alfred A
            No information

            5.3 Greta C - Stepchild
            Born 1920
            No information

            ...........................................................

            B. FAMILY B
            A Grandmother's Family
            Jana B A and Adolf A

            1. William B
            No information.

            Alternates
            • Vilem B
            Born 1880 
            (could be brother of Jana ?)
            Pilsen base
            To Theresienstadt CZ
            To Izbica, Lublin PL
            1942
            Perished
            • Vilem B
            This looks like the same person as 1a, from other data,
            Despite the birthdates recorded (different)
            Born 1897
            Prague base
            To Theresienstadt CZ
            To Izbica, Lublin PL
            1942
            Perished

            2.  Philip B, a/k/a Phillip
            Two separate Testimonies - is one an update?
            • Philip B
            Several first names given on same testimonial
             Doctor
            Ewald Philip B?  a/k/a Evald
             Testimony John Henry C, cousin 
            Born in Most 28/07/1913 in Most CZ 
            Parents Leopold and Suzanne
            Spouse first name Valie
            Prague base
            1/10/1944
            To Auschwitz CZ
            Perished
            • Phillip B
            Second testimony, same person John Henry C
            Born same date, 28/07/1913 but in Ceske Budojovice

            Ceske Budojovice CZ, Hluboka Castle gardens

            Mother is Valie C
            Place of death, Kaufering, Munich DE
            1945
            Perished












            PERSONS WITH UNCLEAR CONNECTION

            1. Eva A

            An Eva A comes up, not in her own name, but under Steiner, Hanna, nee A; and the name there is Ema, not Eva

            No other information.

            Microcosm:

            The Jewish population in Trebic was decimated. It never recovered.

            Of 1371 persons deported from the region, including Jihlava, 285 were from the centuries-old Jewish Quarter, Zamosti in Trebic.

            There had been two synagogues.

            Other Jews were harassed, persecuted, left.

            Only 10 Jews survived and returned. See://www.trebic.cz/en/article.asp?article_id=2558/

            Now? No more Jews. See ://www.radio.cz/en/article/43039/. One synagogue, the Front Synagogue, is now used by the Hussites, a protestant reformer-origins religious group. The other, the Rear Synagogue, was used as a storehouse by the Germans, still has Jewish writing on the walls from earlier years, some talk of rehab, but the conversation moves quickly to the big basilica now also World Heritage.

             ........................................................

            FN 1
            The Lodz Ghetto. Litzmannstadt Ghetto.

            Issue: Do the extremes of that generation's groups in power recur: Are there resurgences of those who target other religious and ethnic and distinguishable groups as "Other".

            Mindset. At that time, it was Jews, Gypsies, the handicapped, the Orthodox in some places, etc. Does that exclusion mindset make the "Other" so "Not One of Us" that they must be against us. If they are against us, then we can conduct killing and recriminations, justified by our projections of "evil", the Other as expendable. Do Inclusives need watchfulness in every country, every day. Look around at a family gathering this year. This tracking-site is your family in Year-Future, perhaps, if those whose sense of self requires exclusion, denigration, and removal of others from their path. It depends on who exerts what power, and succeeds. Is that so.